Resources

The more you know, the better chance Hemlocks have.

On this page we provide access to critical scientific research. We give you links to other important websites, references to scientific peer-reviewed articles and downloadable pdfs. We believe the more we all know…the better prepared we’ll all be to reverse HWA destruction.

Web:

http://www.biocontrol.entomology.cornell.edu/predators/sasajiscymnus.html

http://www.ecfla.org/articles/adelgid.htm

http://www.savinghemlocks.org

http://wiki.bugwood.org/Archive:HWA/Sasajiscymnus_Lady_Beetle_from_Japan

Pdfs:

Evidence-based Assessments of Private Sasajiscymnus tsugae Release Sites in Western North CarolinaPredator_Beetles_At_Work

The Biological Control of Hemlock Woolly AdelgidHWA

What Works Against the HWA?hwafactsheet

The Dangers of Imidacloprid! imidacloprid

The Case for Sasajiscymnus tsugae: Biological Control has Helped Save Connecticut’s Hemlocks: Case_for_Sasajiscymnus_tsugae

Assessments of Biological Control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid with S. tsugae in Connecticut and New Jersey: biological-control-assessment-cheah

Low Density Release Strategies for Sasi Predator Beetles:  LDRelease

HWA Threat (PPT): HWA and its Threat

References:

Butin, E., Montgomery, M., Havill, N., Elkinton, J. 2002. “Pre-release host range assessment for classical biological controls: experience with predators for the hemlock woolly adelgid,” pp. 205-214. In: Onken, B., Reardon, R., and Lashomb, J. (eds.), Proceedings: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States Symposium, 2002 Feb. 5-7; East Brunswick, New Jersey, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and Rutgers University.

Butin, E., Elkinton, J., Havill, N., Montgomery, M. 2003. “Comparison of numerical response and predation effects of two coccinellid species on hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 763-767.

Cheah, C.A.S.-J., Donahue, C. 2003. Alternate adelgid prey species for Pseudoscymnus tsugae establishment. Abstract of talk presented at the 2003 Northeast Forest Pest Council Meeting, Grey Towers, PA.

Cheah, C.A.S.-J., McClure, M.S. 1996. “Exotic natural enemies of Adelges tsugae and their potential for biological control,” pp 103-112. In: S. Salom, T. Tigner, and R. Reardon (eds.), Proceedings: The First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review, 1995 October 12, Charlottesville, VA. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, FHTET-96-10.

Cheah, C.A.S.-J., McClure, M.S. 1998. “Life history and development of Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a new predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Environmental Entomology, 27: 1531-1536.

Cheah, C.A.S.-J., McClure, M.S. 2000. “Seasonal synchrony of life cycles between the exotic predator, Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its prey, the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Agricultural and Forest Entomology 2: 241-251.

Cheah, C.A.S.-J., McClure, M.S. 2002. “Pseudoscymnus tsugae in Connecticut forests: The first five years,” pp 150-165. In: B. Onken, R. Reardon, and J. Lashomb (eds.), Proceedings: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States Symposium, 2002 Feb. 5-7; East Brunswick, New Jersey, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and Rutgers University.

Hagen, K.S., Mills, N.J., Gordh, G., & McMurtry, J.A. 1999. “Terrestrial arthropod predators of insect and mite pests,” pp. 383-503. In: T.S. Bellows and T.W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, New York.

Koch, R.L. 2003. “The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control and non-target impacts.” Journal of Insect Science. 3:32, 16 pp.

Lu, W., Mongtomery, M.E. 2001. “Oviposition, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): a predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94: 64-70.

Lu, W., Souphanya, P., Montgomery, M.E. 2002. “Description of immature stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history.” The Coleopterists Bulletin 56: 127-141.

McClure, M. 1987. “Biology and control of hemlock woolly adelgid.” Bulletin, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven 251, 9p.

McClure, M. 2001. “Biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid in the Eastern United States.” U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Morgantown, WV, FHTET-2000-08 (January 2001) 10p.

McClure, M.S., Cheah, C.A.S.-J., Tigner, T.C. 2000. “Is Pseudoscymnus tsugae the solution to the hemlock woolly adelgid problem? An early perspective, pp. 89-96. In: K.A. McManus, K.S. Shields, and D.R. Souto (eds.), Proceedings: The Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station General Technical Report NE-267.

McClure, M.S., Salom, S.M., Shields, K.S. 2001. Hemlock woolly adelgid. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Morgantown, WV, FHTET-2001-03 (September 2003) 14p.

Montgomery, M.E., Lyon, S. 1996. “Natural enemies of adelgids in North America: their prospect for biological control of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae),” pp. 89-102. In: S. Salom, T. Tigner, and R. Reardon (eds.), Proceedings: The First Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Review 1995, October 12, Charlottesville, VA. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, FHTET-96-10.

Montgomery, M.E., Lyon, S.M., Lu, W., Defu, Y. and Wang, H. 1998. “Developing biological control technology: evaluation of the feeding range of predaceous beetles,” pp. 28-34. In: Proceedings: Resource Technology 1997: Beijing International Symposium. China Forestry Publishing House.

Montgomery, M.E., Yao, D. and Wang, H. 2000. “Chinese Coccinellidae for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid: Description of native habitat,” pp. 97-102. In: McManus, K.A; Shields, K.S. and Souto, D.R. (eds.), Proceedings: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States Symposium, 2002 Feb. 5-7; East Brunswick, New Jersey, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and Rutgers University.

Montgomery, M.E., Wang, H., Yao, D., Lu, W., Havill, N., Li, G. 2002. “Biology of Scymnus ningshanensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A predator of Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae),” pp. 181-188. In: Onken, B., Reardon, R. and Lashomb, J. (eds.), Proceedings: Symposium on the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in Eastern North America. N.J. Agric. Exp. Sta., Rutgers, New Brunswick.

Onken, B., Reardon, R. and Lashomb, J. 2002. Proceedings: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States Symposium, 2002 February 5-7, East Brunswick, NJ. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and Rutgers University. 403p.

Reid, W.R. 2003. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with hemlock woolly adelgid. Thesis. University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. 99p.

Reid, W., Parker, B.L., Skinner, M., Gouli, S., Teillon, H.B. Brant. 2002. “Insect-killing fungi for management of hemlock woolly adelgid: a review of progress,” pp. 198-204. In: B. Onken, R. Reardon, and J. Lashomb (eds.), Proceedings: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States Symposium, East Brunswick, New Jersey. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and Rutgers University.

Sasaji, H., McClure, M.S. 1997. “Description and distribution of Pseudoscymnus tsugae sp. Nov. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): an important predator of hemlock woolly adelgid in Japan.” Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90: 563-568.

Vandenberg, N.J. “Homonymy in the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) or Something Fishy about Pseudoscymnus Chapin.” Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 106: 483-484.

Wallace, M.S., Hain, F.P. 2000. “Field surveys and evaluation of native and established predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in the Southeastern United States.” Environmental Entomology 29: 638-644.

Wang, H., Defu, Y., Li, G., Zhang, C., Li, L., Guo, H., Zhao, D. 1998. “Investigation on hemlock woolly adelgids and its natural enemies in China,” pp. 41-46. In: Proceedings, Resource Technology 1997: Beijing International Symposium. China Forestry Publishing House.

Wang, H., Li, G., Yao, D., Montgomery, M.E., Lu, W. 2000. “Preliminary study on morphology and biology of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis,” pp. 71-76. In: Anonymous (ed.) Entomology Toward the 21st Century. Entomological Society ofChina.

Yu, G., Yao, D., Liu, H. 1997. “The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) collected from Tsuga with Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Scientia Silvae Sinicae 33:432-440.

Yu, G. 1999. “Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Pinus armandii Franchet infested with Pineus sp.” Entomotaxonomia” 21: 281-287.

Yu, G., Montgomery, M.E., Yao, D. 2000. “Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Chinese hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” The Coleopterists Bulletin 54: 154-199.

Zhao, D., Guo, H., Xu, X. 1999. “Biology of hemlock woolly adelgid and its control strategy” [in Chinese]. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science 22: 36-38.

Zhao, D., Guo, H., Zhou, J., Xu, X., Wang, Z., Meng, Y., Jiang, Y. 1998. “Food consumption of Scymnus camptodromus on hemlock woolly adelgid.” Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science 19: 44-46.

Zilahi-Balogh, G.M.G., Kok, L.T., Salom, S.M. 2002. “Host specificity tests of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derondontidae), a biological control agent of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Biological Control. 24: 192-198.

Zilahi-Balogh, G.M.G., Salom, S., Kok, L.T. 2003a. “Development and reproductive biology of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a potential biological control agent of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae).” Biological Control 48: 293-306.

Zilahi-Balogh, G.M.G., Humble, L.M., Lamb, A.B., Salom, S.M., Kok, L.T. 2003b. “Seasonal abundance and synchrony between Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera:Derondontidae) and its prey, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in British Columbia.” Canadian Entomologist 135: 103-115.

 

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